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1. Image is by permission of the 'All Things Jacklex' blog and shows a Russian battalion preparing to loose a table top volley.
RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR TACTICS
‘The Russo-Japanese War did not offer new or remarkable lessons or innovations in military tactics. In many ways it was a dress rehearsal for World War 1 a decade later. At the same time, it more than confirmed the lessons of earlier engagements of the late 19th century, such as the Second Boer War, for it demonstrated the futility of the frontal attack, the power of the rifle and machine gun on the defensive, and especially the vital role artillery plays in the modern battlefield. However, the artillery was driven farther back by the hail of bullets until the gunners were compelled to seek cover on the ground and cease firing over their sights. The war turned increasingly into trench warfare, and all the land engagements became entrenched.
Whenever it was possible, trenches were protected by wire entanglements. Frontal attacks, save as fixing operations, were altogether out of the question. At each great battle, especially the battles of Yalu River, Liaoyang and Muckden, it was the Japanese threat of envelopment by infantry and artillery, cavalry having lost all offensive power, that compelled the Russians to retreat.
Eventually the Russo-Japanese War was brought to an end not through tactical or strategic action but by revolution and attrition. Both sides were virtually worn out, and Russia was threatened by rebellion and disaster.’
Source: ‘Historical Dictionary of The Russo Japanese War’, 2nd Edition, Kowner, Rowman and Littlefield, 2017.